In this disease, the cells of the uterine endometrium are also found outside of the uterine cavity. This can lead to pain and destruction of tissues. Several stages of the disorder are recognized, depending on severity and distribution. The diagnosis is usually made with abdominal imaging (laparoscopy).

Endometriosis is a common disorder in women, manifested between puberty and menopause. Since the symptoms cannot always be immediately assigned to the disease, it can be several months to years before the endometriosis is confirmed.

The cause of this disease is cells of the uterine endometrium found outside of the uterine cavity. Usually, these cells and cellular islands are found in the immediate vicinity of the uterus, i.e. around the ovaries, tubes, bladder and the intestine, very rarely much farther. These cells are probably flushed out with menstruation into the abdominal cavity. However, it is also possible that immature cells develop into uterine endometrium at the affected places.



Because these patches of cells react strongly to hormones, the disease occurs during a woman's childbearing age, when there is regular hormone activity. When the hormone production declines with the menopause, endometriosis also subsides. The important role of menstruation is underlined by the fact that there is a connection between the age of first menstruation and severity of bleeding, and the risk of getting sick.

One of the most important symptoms is strong spasmodic pain during menstruation. Furthermore, some patients have pain during intercourse, defecation or urination. The patients require increasingly stronger pain killers, to the extent that only infusions at the doctor's office or in the hospital can help during the menstruation.

The disease can lead to the inability to conceive. Inflammation of the lesion or spatial constraints can lead to occlusion of the tubes. On the ovaries, typical cysts can be found, basically comprising a cavity with bloody contents, a liquid nutrition for the aberrant cells.

  • Stage I: the lesions are found in the lesser pelvis or uterine neck and are smaller than 5 millimeters, both tubes are navigable
  • Stage II: the lesions are found in the lesser pelvis, the uterine neck or the bladder ceiling, both tubes are damaged
  • Stage III: the endometrious lesions are located in the musculature layer of the uterine wall. One can also find endometrial cysts on the ovaries or the uterine ligaments.
  • Stage IV: the endometriosis is present on other organs, such as intestine, lung, liver.


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